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Gasoline car fuel efficiency comparable to hybrid Mazda SKYACTIV picture
2012-06-24 by seoer9

Localized hot particles, as well as lack of oxygen particles machines have been avoided, thus reducing the generation of NOx and soot. Jet and particle machine is near the top dead center, piston stroke are all used to generate the driving force, and the resulting enhancement of the thermal efficiency.

The second advantage to reduce the compression ratio, lightweight engine parts and reduce friction loss. As the largest particle filling machines in barrel pressure is reduced, thus reducing the required strength of the engine constructs. The cylinder body (for Cylinder Block), combined with the use of aluminum (Al) alloy, thereby reducing the weight of 25kg.

The cylinder cover (Cylinder Head), through the integration of thin-walled exhaust manifold, reducing the weight of 3kg. Sports parts, piston and crank shafts (the Crank Shaft) reduce the weight of 25%. The lightweight sports parts contribute to the reduction of friction loss, Mazda said almost the same as the gasoline engine friction loss (Figure 8). The friction loss in the 2 to 5 percent fuel efficiency upgrade.

Gasoline car fuel efficiency comparable to hybrid Mazda SKYACTIV picture (b)
Figure 8 SKYACTIV-D with the old engine friction loss compared
Compared with the old engine, SKYACTIV-D declining barrel largest particles particles machine, thus moving parts, light weight and small friction losses can be reduced to the equivalent level with gasoline engines.

Despite these benefits, had but did not reduce the diesel engine compression ratio, the reason is because of the existence of the decline in cold starting, warm-up the process of moving the semi-fire and other. To solve this problem, Mazda uses highly responsive piezo nozzle average each particle pellet maker machine up to spray nine times. By virtue of the jet degrees of freedom to achieve precise injection control, as well as the ceramic particles machine (Ceramic Glow the Plug), low compression than under the conditions of steady start to become possible.

Another technology is the equipment in the exhaust valve VVL (variable valve lifting mechanism). The switch in the cold starting cam, slightly open the exhaust valve in the suction process. Exhaust hole, high temperature and high residual gas reflux into the cylinder, thereby improving the inhalation of air temperature, and to promote ignition.

Gasoline car fuel efficiency comparable to hybrid Mazda SKYACTIV picture (b)
Figure 9 2 turbo
By distinguishing the size of the two turbines, in order to ensure sufficient amount of air in the low speed section.

In addition, as the Japanese manufacturers of passenger cars with diesel engines for the first time using two turbochargers, which is also worth to be concerned as a key technology (Figure 9). 2 Turbo is a turbo at low speeds, start small, start large-scale turbine at high speed, in order from low speed to high speed can be filled with sufficient quantity of air pressurization system.

In order to reduce the occurrence of the NOx, the new diesel with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation), thus making the amount of air shortfalls will become soot causes. The adoption of the two turbines, making it possible to ensure sufficient amount of air at low speeds.

Focused on the benefits of AT, CVT, DCT

Development goals of the new automatic transmission, SKYACTIV-Drive, the existing AT (automatic transmission), CVT (continuously variable transmission), DCT (Dual ClutchTransmission) the advantages rolled into one.

The advantages of the CVT used in Japan more smooth variable speed and low speed fuel efficiency is very good, but the rival in the direct sense of the high-speed fuel efficiency and throttle operation. Common AT in the U.S. mainstream, but in the direct sense of low fuel efficiency, operation, smooth acceleration there is room for improvement. In contrast, in Europe, an increasing number of DCT fuel efficiency and operating direct sense, have an advantage, but not in the starting and motility (Creep) smooth in terms of satisfactory. Mazda firm size, for all regions to prepare a different gearbox is unrealistic. Mazda previous AT as a prototype, commitment to the development of a centralized all of the above the benefits of new transmission gearbox.

Mazda's new gearbox to the existing AT construct a prototype, its shortcomings determination to improve. Low-speed fuel efficiency and poor acceleration operating direct sense of the legacy AT difficulty, the cause of its conduction through the fluid driving force torque converter (converter). As a result, Mazda legacy AT substantial increase in lock (Lockup) region, to a substantial increase in the operating direct sense and fuel efficiency.

Contrast, under the JC08 mode, as opposed to old-fashioned 5AT lock time ratio of 49%, the new AT widened to 82 percent. Compared with the old AT, 4 to 7 percent fuel efficiency upgrade.

One of the key technologies to expand the lock area is the adoption of the new lock-up clutch (Lockup Clutch). Adopted by the old-fashioned lock-up clutch torque converter casing and installed on the engine side of the clutch facing (Clutch Facing) the type of contact conduction the driving force of the majority.

Gasoline car fuel efficiency comparable to hybrid Mazda SKYACTIV picture (b)
Figure of 10 SKYACTIV-D rive the torque converter
On the one hand do its utmost to reduce the size of the torque converter, on the other hand, the locking clutch hydraulic multi-plate clutch to extend the lock time, more fuel-efficient.
Different Mazda's new AT controlling and greater durability of the hydraulic multi-plate clutch lock-up clutch, therefore, even if the clutch is closed, at low speeds and can also reduce vibration and noise, but also to ensure that the frequency of use increased reliability (Figure 10). At the same time, increase the shock absorber of the vibration attenuation when the clutch is closed down. In order to ensure the installation space of the hydraulic multi-plate clutch and shock absorbers, simply conceived converter used only in a very low speed only, and thus its size doing more compact.

In addition, the hydraulic control mechanism and the ECU (electronic control unit) combined to improve the accuracy of the hydraulic oil particles machine, and more responsive hydraulic control gear solenoid, with these measures to achieve a fast variable-speed action that can compete with the DCT. Mazda said to reduce vibration and noise requires not only the improvement of the transmission, must also improve body rigidity and reduce the vibration of the exhaust system, improved engine mounts, linkage with other departments.

On the other hand, the new manual gearbox SKYACTIV-MT efforts through the front-wheel drive vehicles with manual gearbox, like sports cars, light and yet restrained feeling of shifting, also by the structure of adjustment to achieve a substantial Small and lightweight.

Improvement in shift feeling, in order to both smaller operating force and stroke shorter of these two opposite properties, Mazda developed the precise conduction through the smaller internal stroke operating force, the smaller module synchronization institutions. The structure of adjustment through the use of two speed and three-speed input gear used along with the constructor, will shorten the length of the second axis 20% (Figure 11). Mazda said that together with other tectonic adjustment to reduce the transmission weight of the monomer by about 16%.





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